Chromatographic separation techniques are multistage separation methods in which the components of a sample are distributed between two phases, of which one is stationary and the other is mobile. The stationary phase may be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid or a gel. The stationary phase may be packed in a column, spread as a layer, distributed as a film, or applied by other techniques. The mobile phase may be in a gaseous or liquid form, or a supercritical fluid. The separation may be based on adsorption, mass distribution (partition), or ion exchange; or it may be based on differences among the physicochemical properties of the molecules, such as size, mass, and volume. This chapter contains general procedures, definitions, and calculations of common parameters and describes general requirements for system suitability. The types of chromatography useful in qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in USP procedures are column, gas (GC), paper, thin-layer (TLC) [including high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)], and pressurized liquid chromatography [commonly called high-pressure or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].