Nephelometry and turbidimetry are analytical techniques that are based on the principles of light-scattering phenomena. Light scattering is the physical phenomenon in which a beam of light changes its direction of propagation (known as deflection) as a result of interaction with sufficiently small matter particles. It has been established from the Maxwell electromagnetic theory that a prerequisite for scattering to occur is that the refractive indexes of the suspended particles must be different from those of the suspending liquid. The larger the difference, the more intense the scattering becomes. There are two types of light scattering: 1) elastic scattering, in which the wavelength of the scattered light and incident light are the same; and 2) inelastic light scattering, in which the wavelength of the scattered light and incident light are different. Only the first type of light scattering (elastic) is relevant to nephelometry and turbidimetry.